The Team

Dr. Nicholas EastaughDr. Nicholas Eastaugh is a scientific consultant specialising in the analysis of fine art and other historical objects. He has a background in physics and is also a graduate of the Courtauld Institute of Art. He is an honorary fellow of the Research Laboratory for Archeology and the History of Art, Oxford University. Nicholas is overseeing much of the project as well as preparing entries for the Dictionary and the Optical Microscopy books. He is also developing the database.

Valentine WalshValentine Walsh is a practising paintings conservator with a great interest in the scientific study of paintings and in the wide availability of scientific techniques in the fields of art history and conservation. She is a Kress Fellow. Valentine is also overseeing the project as well as carrying out documentary research and preparing entries for the Dictionary.

Dr. Tracey ChaplinDr. Tracey Chaplin is a geologist specialising in applications of Raman spectroscopy. She is currently researching pigments in the Department of Chemistry, University College London. Tracey is collaborating on preparing the optical mineralogy data for the database as well as establishing the protocols needed in this area.

Dr. Ruth SiddallDr. Ruth Siddall describes herself as an ‘archaeo-geologist’, with an interest in minerals used as pigments. She is based in the Department of Earth Sciences at University College, London. Ruth is collaborating on preparing the optical mineralogy data for the database as well as establishing the protocols needed in this area.

Dr. Henryk HermanDr. Henryk Herman is a scientific consultant who researches, develops and implements innovative “remote sensing” and optical spectroscopy analytical solutions. Henryk has special expertise in organic analysis using techniques such as FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and is applying these to a survey of the project’s pigment collection.

Dr. Alison CrossleyFrank CullenDr. Alison Crossley and Frank Cullen are specialists in X-ray diffraction and ESCA techniques. They both work in the Department of Materials Science, University of Oxford. Alison and Frank are currently preparing a high-quality XRD survey of the pigment collection.


Pigmentum Project Associates are people we work with on specific projects. They are all experts in their own right, so bring with them a range of knowledge and skills that complement our research. If you’d like to talk to us about becoming an Associate, please contact us to discuss new and ongoing projects.

Peter Paul Biro is based in Montreal, Canada. A conservator by training, he has many years’ experience as a microscopic analyst working on paintings. Since 1984 he has been researching the use of physical evidence from paintings, notably the identification and use of fingerprints and, now, recovery of DNA evidence.

Dr. Sarah Lowengard is a historian of technology and science who specializes in the chemistry and physics of early modern Europe. Her research calls on studies of art, material culture and materials science as well as the more typical concerns of social life, economies and intellectualism. She is currently writing about glassmaking and chemistry as understood by an eighteenth-century London musician. Her book, Color Practices, Color Theories and the Creation of Color in Objects is available through the Gutenberg-e project website.

Mark Clarke trained as a paper conservator and conservation scientist, and after an interdisciplinary PhD on “Anglo-Saxon Manuscript Pigments”, specialised in researching ‘recipe books’ for painters and the analysis of artists’ pigments. He is currently based at the Hamilton Kerr Institute of the University of Cambridge’s Fitzwilliam Museum, where he is working on the nineteenth-century archive of hand-written recipes for artists’ materials from the English company Winsor & Newton.

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